Glossary of Railway Operation 
Research Terms

 

English term

Explanation

Deutsche Bezeichnung

Access occupancy time

See > platform access occupancy time

Zugangsbelegungszeit

Additional properties

In SLS: Values which shall be valid for a train only for a part of the investigated line, special recovery margin, additional stop (not at a stopping location), coasting.

Zusatzvereinbarungen

Advance

The opposite of > delay. Advances may be mainly watched for freight trains. Passenger trains may have small advances in arrival, but may not depart before the scheduled time.

Verfrühung

Advanced starter (starting) signal

See > section signal

Signal, an dem der Streckenblock beginnt (britische Absolutblock-Technologie)

Aerodynamic drag coefficient

A coefficient in vehicle resistance to consider the air resistance

Luftwiderstandsbeiwert

Ahead-of-schedule running

A running which is earlier than planned or expected.
See also > advance

Vor-Plan-Fahrt

Analytical model
Analytical method

A description in terms of mathematical relationships between certain entities that are relevant in a certain problem setting. (source [1])

Analytisches Modell
Analytische Methode

Approach time

In line side signaling: running time between distant signal and main signal.
In cab signaling: running time between the intervention point (or the infill-balise before) and main signal or block marker

Annäherungsfahrzeit

Arrival delay

see > delay

Ankunftsverspätung

Bending

A method for conflict solution in the scheduling process by extension of running times in a certain section of the train route.

Biegen

Bending margin

The difference between running time in a certain section after bending and regular running time.

Biegezuschlag

Block clearing point

The point which a train has to leave with its rear so that the block may be entered by the next train.

Signalzugschlussstelle

Blocking ratio

The total of all occupancy (blocking) times of a section of track in a certain period divided by this period

Sperrgrad

Blocking time

The time interval during which a section of track is allocated for exclusive use of one train and is therefore blocked to other trains. (source [1])

Sperrzeit

Blocking time stairway

See > closed time steps

Sperrzeitentreppe

Block marker

A type of signals for marking the block borders without showing any signal aspects, used in case of cab signaling.

Blockkennzeichen

Block release point

See > block clearing point

Signalzugschlussstelle

Block section

A section of track in a fixed block system, which a train may enter only when it is not occupied by another train or vehicles. (source [1])

Blockabschnitt

Brake intervention

A function in train control systems to bypass the human in charge, if he/she does not consider given deceleration curves because of signal aspects (warning or stop).

Zwangsbremsung

Brake position

A setting for the intermittent control system PZB depending on train speed and deceleration ability.

Zugartstellung

Branch line

In a junction: The line (of less importance) which is split off the straight-ahead-line (of more importance)
See also > converging line, > diverging line

Zweiggleis/-strecke (in einer Abzweigung)

Buffer time

The extra time that is added to the minimum line headway to avoid the transmission of small delays. (source [1])

Pufferzeit

Burrowing junction

A junction where crossing tracks are located on different levels.

Höhenfreie Abzweigung

Cab signaling

A signaling system that displays the movement authority on the driver's desk, rather than the use of line side signals. (source [1])

Führerstandssignallisierung

Capacity of infrastructure

The maximum number of trains that may be operated over a defined part of infrastructure (e.g. line section, junction) over a certain period of time.

Leistungsfähigkeit der Infrastruktur

    Nominal ...
    Practical ...

The maximum number of trains that may be operated over a defined part of infrastructure over a certain period of time with a defined level of service (key value in the analytical method).

Nennleistung
Praktische Leistungsfähigkeit

        Theoretical ...

The maximum number of trains that may in theory be operated over a defined part of infrastructure over a certain period of time, though this limiting value is unlikely to be reached in practice (key value in the analytical method). (source [1])

Theoretische Leistungsfähigkeit

Captive

A train is captive, when its speed is limited because of a limiting value of a train control system.

Gefangen

Center platform

A platform with tracks on both sides.

Mittelbahnsteig

Class

See > traction unit class

 

Clearing time

The running time between end of block section (main signal, block marker) and leaving the end of overlap with the rear.

Räumfahrzeit

Clock-face timetable

See > cyclic timetable

Taktfahrplan

Closed time steps

The file of blocking times along the train route within the investigation area.

Sperrzeitentreppe

Co-acting signal

A signal which presents the same signal aspect as the relevant signal itself. It is arranged, if a continuous sighting distance/time cannot be realized.

Signalwiederholer

Coasting speed

The train speed at which the driver switches off traction power to go into coasting mode. (source [1])

Ausrollgeschwindigkeit

    Target ...

The coasting speed at the end of the coasting mode.

Ausrollgeschwindigkeit am Ende des Ausrollbereiches

Collateral delay

See > delay

Folgeverspätung

Commercial stop

A stop out of commercial reasons like passenger's getting in/out, shunting of freight wagons.

Verkehrshalt

Conflict resolution

The system to solve the potential conflicts in train movements on the basis of the most suitable and robust dispatching options. (source [1])

Konfliktlösung

Consecutive delay

See > delay

Folgeverspätung

Converging

The merging of two traffic flows or two routes in a station or a junction.

Einfädeln

Converging line

In a junction: The track in continuation of the diverging track of a trailing point.

Einfädelungsgleis

Converging route

In a junction: The route over the diverging track of a trailing point, opposite of straight-ahead-route.

Einfädelungsfahrstraße

Costumer benefit stop

See > commercial stop

Verkehrshalt

Crossing

1) An assembly of rails that enables two tracks to cross each other at grade (better: diamond crossing). (source [1])
2) The meeting of two trains on a single-track line. Standardly it takes place in station, where at least one train stops. In rare cases, there is a short double-track section so that they may pass.
3) A route conflict in route notes or serial route nodes, when the two train routes have different begins and different ends.

1) Kreuzung (Gleiselement)
2) Kreuzen (eingleisige Strecke)
3) Kreuzen ((Teil-)Fahrstraßenknoten)

Crossing stop

A stop in a station to allow a train crossing on a single-track line.

Kreuzungshalt

Cross-section (area)

A straight intersection of a train or a tunnel with a plane measured in [m²].

Querschnittsfläche

Current type

A classification defined by alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC) and the voltage.

Stromart

Cyclic timetable

A timetable which repeats itself over a certain period or time (e.g. one hour). (source [1])

Taktfahrplan

Daily operation process

See > operating stages

Betriebsdurchführung
Betriebsablauf

Daily time series

Number of trains per hour specified to train groups presented by a pattern train or put together in another way.

Tagesganglinie

Dead heading

See > empty coaching stock train
See > light engine

Leerreisezug
Triebfahrzeugleerfahrt, Lokzug

Deadlock

A traffic situation involving a set of trains each claiming a resource which is not available, leading to the impossibility of further regular movement by any train of the set. (source [1])

Deadlock

Delay

The deviation from either a scheduled event or process time of a train. (source [1])

Verspätung

    Arrival ...

A deviation of the arrival time from the scheduled arrival time at a station or other specified location. (source [1])

Ankunfts...

    Collateral ...

See > knock-on delay

Folge...

    Consecutive ...

See > knock-on delay

Folge...

    Initial ...

Any delay recorded at the cordons of an investigated network when the train enters that network. (source [1])

Einbruchs...

    Knock-on ...

A delay caused by other trains due to either too short headway times or late transfer connections. (source [1]) Synonym: un-scheduled waiting time.

Folge...

    Original ...

A delay generated within the investigated network and not caused by other trains. (source [1])

Ur...

    Resulting ...

See > knock-on delay

Folge...

    System entry ...

See > initial delay

Einbruchs...

    System exit ...

Any delay recorded at the cordons of an investigated network when the train leaves that network.

Ausbruchs...

Diamond crossing

An assembly of rails that enables two tracks to cross each other at grade. (source [1])

Kreuzung (Gleiselement)

Dispatcher

See > traffic controller

Betriebslenker (Zentrale)
Fahrdienstleiter (Bahnhof)

Distant signal

A line side caution signal which provides the driver with the signal aspect of the main signal to which it is assigned.

Vorsignal

Disturbed train operation

An operating situation in which, due to a conflict with another train, a train will encounter a signal showing a restrictive aspect and will therefore have to modify its speed.
See also > undisturbed train operation. (source [1])

Behinderte Zugfahrt

Diverging

The separation of two traffic flows or two routes in a station or a junction.

Ausfädeln

Diverging line

In a junction: The track in continuation of the diverging track of a facing point.

Ausfädelungsgleis

Diverging route

In a junction: The route over the diverging track of a facing point, opposite of straight-ahead-route.

Ausfädelungsfahrstraße

Double sided platform

See > center platform

Mittelbahnsteig

Double slip (switch)

A track layout that combines a crossing with four pairs of points to provide slip connections at both sides of the crossing. It offers eight possible train routes.

Doppelte Kreuzungsweiche

Dwell time

The total elapsed time from when a train stops in a station or halt until it resumes moving. Note that dwell time includes that needed to open and close doors and dispatch the train; it is not just that during passengers may join or alight. (source [1])

Haltezeit

Dwell time reserve

Amount of time which is added to the calculated dwell times in order to compensate for randomness of real dwell times or to obtain times "to the full minute".(source [1]) Also used as a recovery margin to reduce delays.

Haltezeitreserve

Empty coaching stock train

A train with passenger coaches which is operated only out of operational reasons and which may not be used by passengers.

Leerreisezug

Entrance speed
Entry speed

The permitted speed shown at the home signal or in the driver's working timetable to enter a station track or to enter the main line in a junction.

Einfahrgeschwindigkeit

Entrance signal
Entry signal

In SLS used according to German signaling terminology: The signal at the entrance of a terminal (terminal limit), comparable to  > home signal in British signaling terminology. The term is used independently from signaling technique.

Einfahrsignal

Equally-ranked

In a train sequence: The two trains have the same priority.

Gleichrangig

Exit signal

In SLS used according to German signaling terminology: A signal at the end of a terminal track, transition from a terminal to the running line, comparable to  > starter signal in British signaling terminology. The term is used independently from signaling technique.

Ausfahrsignal

Exit speed

Permitted reduced speed when leaving a terminal track or when leaving the main line in a junction.

Ausfahrgeschwindigkeit

Facing point

The point or the turnout, where a line is split off in two lines (straight-ahead-line and branch line) in direction of train running.

Ausfädelungsweiche

Filtering-in

The merging of trains coming from the rear lines when entering the network.

Einfädeln

Forecast period

The time interval for which a forecast is valid.

Prognosezeitraum

Friction coefficient

A coefficient in vehicle resistance to consider the friction between wheel and rail.

Reibungsbeiwert Rad/Schiene

Halt

A location where stopping, ending, beginning, or direction reversal of trains is possible. It has no points.

Haltepunkt

Headway (time)

The space or time interval between two successive trains. (source [1])

Zugfolgezeit

        Minimum ...

The minimum space or time interval between two successive trains. The minimum headway time is determined in the first block section of that part of infrastructure which is used in common by both trains. The first block section is not necessarily the relevant block section where the blocking times touch without buffer time.(source [1]) In SLS, it is the interval between the block begin of the first train and the block begin of the second train, based on regular train running.

Mindest...

High-ranked

In a train sequence: The train with the higher priority than the other.

Hochrangig

Home signal

British signaling terminology: In the absolute block signaling technique, a signal with the aspects "stop", "clear", and "clear with limited speed" at the border between running line and station.

Einfahrsignal

Impeded train operation
Impeded train running

See > disturbed train operation

Gestörter Betriebsablauf

Individual train

One train with its individual characteristics,
in contrast to > pattern train.

Einzelzug

Inferior

See > low-ranked

Niederrangig

Initial delay

See > delay

Einbruchsverspätung

Inter-arrival time

The difference between succeeding arrival times of trains or train paths. (source [1])

Ankunftsabstand

    Minimum ...

The minimum space or time interval between two successive trains. The minimum inter-arrival time is determined in the last block section of that part of infrastructure which is used in common by both trains. The last block section is not necessarily the relevant block section where the blocking times touch without buffer time.

Mindest...

Interlocking

An arrangement by which points and signals are electrically or otherwise interconnected, which prevents different parts of the system from giving contrary indications or allowing unsafe operational conditions to be created.(source [1])

Blocksystem

Intermediate signal

In SLS used according to German signaling terminology:
Main signals between entry signal and exit signal in terminals with large longitudinal extent. In SLS, these terminals are split into several terminal parts, so that an intermediate signal is both the exit signal of one terminal part and the entry signal of the neighbor terminal part.,

Zwischensignal

Intervention point

The beginning of the decisive deceleration curve so that the train would come to a stop at the end of authority (main signal or block marker).

Bremseinsatzpunkt

Junction

The location outside of a station where two lines are connected.

Abzweigstelle

Junction margin

The minimum permissible time between one train passing a junction and a second train passing the junction, where the second train crosses the path of the first train.(source [1])

Mindestzugfolgezeit in Knoten

Knock-on delay

See > delay

Folgeverspätung

Leaving occupancy time

See > platform leaving occupancy time

Abgangsbelegungszeit

Leaving speed

See > exit speed

Ausfahrgeschwindigkeit

Level  access occupation

In case of level access to platforms: The service process of a train which crosses this level access.

Zugangsbelegung

Level  access occupancy time

In case of level access to platforms: The service time of a train which crosses this level access. It begins with the beginning of the corresponding blocking time and ends when the train reaches the level access. During this time period a train may not use a platform to which the level access leads.

Zugangsbelegungszeit

Level of service

In SLS: A formula with its parameters which was derived from correlation of estimated levels of service on a large number of railway lines (answers of German railway dispatchers) and the calculated knock-on delays (analytical method). First time in 1982, second time in 2008).

Qualitätsmaßstab

Light engine

A train consisting only of (a) traction unit(s).

Triebfahrzeugleerfahrt, Lokzug

Line block signal

A block signal which is located outside of a station.

Streckenblocksignal (Sbk)

    CBL

... with computer based interlocking.

KS-...

    RBL

... with relay interlocking.

Relais-...

Linear projection

See > projection

Lineare Hochrechnung

Line drag

See > line resistance

Streckenwiderstand

Line resistance

The traction effort of the train that is consumed by the infrastructure, especially by gradients and curves. (source [1])

Streckenwiderstand

Line side signaling

A signaling system that displays the movement authority at line side signals.

Ortsfeste Signalisierung

Link

A connection between two nodes. (source [1])

Knotenverbindung

Loop
Looping track

A track that is used for overtakings whereas the train to be overtaken stops in this track and the overtaking train passes in another track.

Überholungsgleis

Loss system

In queuing theory, a service system where customers leave the system if all service channels are busy. (source [1])

Verlustsystem

Low-ranked

In a train sequence: The train has a lower priority than the other.

Niederrangig

Main railway

In SLS, a term according to the German legal regulation in EBO. It activates warnings concerning line speed, gradient, or distance distant/main signal, when values fall below or exceed limits.

Hauptbahn

Main signal

A line side signal that authorizes a running movement to enter a section of line. (source [1])

Hauptsignal

Main track

A track which is used for train running movements, as opposed to sidings. (source [1])

Hauptgleis

    Through ...

The continuation of a line track in a station.

Durchgehendes ...

Minimum headway (time)

See > headway (time)

Mindestzugfolgezeit

Minimum inter-arrival time

See > inter-arrival time

Mindestankunftsabstand

Multiple schedule simulation

See > schedule simulation

Mehrfachsimulation der Fahrplanerstellung

Multiple unit (set)

Train sets, where all vehicles are capable of carrying passengers or luggage/mail.

Triebwagen(zug)

Node

A representation of an arbitrary location in a railway network. (source [1])

Knoten

Nominal capacity

See > capacity of infrastructure

Nennleistung
Praktische Leistungsfähigkeit

Occupancy border

In graphic presentations of blocking times: borderline of the blocking time rectangle.

Sperrzeitrahmen

Occupancy diagram

Shows the time-distance diagram and the blocking times of all trains of one simulation run.

Belegungsplan

Occupancy face

In graphic presentations of blocking times: face of the blocking time rectangle.

Sperrzeitfläche

Occupancy time

A collective term for blocking time, entry blocking, and departure blocking.

Belegungszeit

Occupation ratio

The total of minimum headway times of all train sequences in a certain period, divided by this period

Belegungsgrad

Operating pattern

The number of trains, their daily distribution, and their type of timetable (individual, cyclic).

Betriebsprogramm

Operating time
        Route ...
        Safety system ...

Collective term for route setting (setup) time and route release time.

Bedienungszeit

Operating stage

In spite to individual transport, public transport is planned and operated. The planned stage is the scheduling process, the operated stage is the daily operation process.

Betriebsstufe

Operational quality
Operation quality

See > level of service

Betriebsqualität

Operational stop

A stop for operational reasons (in railway operation research mainly for overtaking, passing, crossing)

Betriebshalt

Operation simulation

The simulation of the daily operation process assuming random perturbations of the timetable and random initial delays of trains either when filtering-in the investigation area or when beginning. Base may be a designed timetable or a simulated timetable. It is standardly carried as a multiple simulation. The mean values over the runs are key values in railway operation research.

Betriebssimulation

Original delay

See > delay

Urverspätung

Overlap

A certain length of track beyond a signal within that a train is forced to stop which has passed this signal though showing the "stop" aspect.

Durchrutschweg

Overtaking section

In a train sequence, the section between two opportunities to overtake one individual train or pattern train by the other.

Überholungsabschnitt

Passing

Running through a terminal or halt without stop.

Durchfahrt

Path

See > train path

Zugtrasse, Fahrplantrasse

Pattern train

A train that represents a group of trains with equal/similar characteristics. Used in the analytical model and in the SLS simulation model for capacity investigation.

Modellzug

Perturbations

The modifications and delays to scheduled operations due to external sources. Small ones can be recovered by the timetable plan, larger ones need intervention by traffic controllers (dispatchers).(source [1])

Abweichungen

Platform access occupation

In case of level accesses to platforms: The service process of the passengers (accompanying persons) which enter a platform to which this level access leads.

Bahnsteigzugangsbelegung

Platform access occupancy time

In case of level accesses to platforms: The service time of the passengers (accompanying persons) which enter a platform to which this level access leads. It begins with the arrival time minus passenger access time minus 90 seconds (assumed safety margin in SLS) and it ends with the departure time. During this time period a train may not occupy the level access.

Bahnsteigzugangsbelegungszeit

Platform leaving occupation

In case of level accesses to platforms: The service process of the passengers (accompanying persons) which leave a platform to which this level access leads.

Bahnsteigabgangsbelegung

Platform leaving occupancy time

In case of level accesses to platforms: The service time of the passengers (accompanying persons) which leave a platform to which this level access leads. It begins with the departure time and it ends the leaving time later plus 30 seconds (assumed safety margin in SLS). During this time period a train may not occupy the level access.

Bahnsteigabgangsbelegungszeit

Points

The track side elements at nodes/junctions that may be aligned to one of two positions depending on the route of a train. (source [1])

Weichen, Weichenzungen

Power car set

A passenger train with a locomotive (or locomotives at both ends) and coaches, whereas the locomotives and the coaches are specially designed for this train set.

Triebkopfzug

Practical capacity

See > capacity of infrastructure

Nennleistung
Praktische Leistungsfähigkeit

Precedence

See > ranking

Rang

Previous line

A line which is located before the line to be investigated.

Zulaufstrecke (vor der zu untersuchenden Strecke)

Projection

The investigation of the number of trains which may be operated at the practical capacity limit.

Hochrechnung

    Linear ...

The number of trains, forming a group presented by a pattern train or put together in another way, are all multiplied with the same factor.

Lineare ...

    Specified ...

One or more groups are specified and only the number of trains in these groups are projected.

Spezifizierte ...

Propelling force

Used force of banking (helper) locomotives, usually limited to a fix value.

Schubkraft

Punctuality (ratio)

The percentage of trains which arrive at (depart from, pass) a location with a delay less then a certain time in minutes (seconds) (source [1])

Pünktlichkeit

Quality ...
        of operation
        of service

See > level of service

Betriebsqualität

Quality factor

Ratio between investigated total of knock-on delays and permitted total of knock-on delays, determines the level of service:
up to 0.5  prime
more than 0.5, less than 1.2 optimal range (1.0  optimal)
from up 1.2  risky
from up 1.5  deficient

Qualitätsfaktor

Random mix

A model describing the traffic mix in a service system by means of probabilities. (source [1]) Standardly used in the analytical model of railway operation.

Zufällige Mischung

Ranking

Trains are operated with different priorities (e.g. depending on train type, legal rules, type of timetable). The states are equally-ranked, high-ranked (superior), and low-ranked (inferior).

Rang

    ... in operation process

The consideration of train priorities during dispatching. The ranking in operation process may differ from the ranking in scheduling process.

... in der Betriebsdurchführung

    ... in scheduling process

The consideration of train priorities during scheduling: Trains with the highest priority are scheduled at first, followed by trains of next priority, etc.

... bei der Fahrplanerstellung

Recovery margin

A margin (in %) that is added to the regular running time to enable a train to make up small delays.

Fahrzeitzuschlag

Recovery time

A time supplement that is added to the regular running time to enable a train to make up small delays. (source [1])

Fahrzeitzuschlagszeit

Reference point

In SLS: A location at the line to which a departure time or a passing time refers.

Querschnitt (für Betriebsprogramm)

Regular running time
Regular tolerance stackup

Pure running time plus added regular tolerance stackup to cover random deviations in tractive effort, driver behavior, and weather conditions.

Regelfahrzeit
Regelzuschlag

Regular train route

See > train route

Regelfahrweg
Regelfahrstraße

Requested departure time

Departure time which is requested by a train operating company (TOC) when booking a train path.

Wunschabfahrtszeit

Route

See > train route

Fahrweg
Fahrstraße

Route clearing point

The point which a train has to leave with its rear so that the route may be entered by the next train after route release and new setting time.

Fahrstraßenzugschlussstelle

Route conflict
Route incompatibility

A route conflict (incompatibility) has occurred when two trains may not be run simultaneously, but one after the other.

Fahrstraßenausschluss
Fahrwegausschluss

Route node

A set of station tracks including switches and crossings in a station throat which adjoins lines and directions of operation. (source [1])

Fahrstraßenknoten

Route release point

See > route clearing point

Fahrstraßenzugschlussstelle

Route release time

The time that is needed for the signaling technique to return to the standard signaling state.

Fahrstraßenauflösezeit

Route setting time
Route setup time

The time that is needed for the signaling technique to set the train route.

Fahrstraßenbildezeit

Running line

See > main track

Hauptgleis

Running movement

A locomotive or train with authority to operate on a main track under the control of main signals. (source [1])

Zugfahrt

Running time

1) The time required to run over a given stretch of track. A distinction can be made between planned running time (including recovery time) and regular running time (trains run at the maximum speed permitted to recover delays). (source [1])
2) The time required to run within a block.

1) Fahrzeit
2) Fahrzeit (zwischen Blocksignalen)

Running time reserve

See > recovery margin

Fahrzeitzuschlag

Scheduled waiting time

An artificial increase in the overall timing of a train which is caused by the resolution of conflicts during the scheduling process.(source [1])

Planmäßige Wartezeit

Schedule-dependent

An algorithm in the analytic method, to investigate the number of train sequences. For every train sequence of two (two-train-model) or three (three-train-model) pattern trains, the number is counted from an existing or a planned timetable.

Fahrplan-abhängig

Schedule-independent

An algorithm in the analytic method, to investigate the number of train sequences. For every train sequence of two (two-train-model) or three (three-train-model) pattern trains, the number is calculated on the base of probability theory.

Fahrplan-unabhängig

Schedule simulation

1) The simulation of the scheduling process considering the given conditions of an operating pattern.
2) Check of a timetable concerning conflicts.

Fahrplansimulation

    Multiple ...

Assuming random request departures of those trains for which the daily time series are only known, a large number (minimum about 50) of scheduling processes are simulated with automatic conflict solutions. The mean values of waiting times when filtering-in and on the line are key values for capacity analysis.

Mehrfachsimulation der Fahrplanerstellung

    Single ...

Used, when the timetable is already designed and has to be checked for conflicts.

Einfachsimulation eines Fahrplanes

Scheduling process

See > operation stages

Fahrplanerstellung
Trassenvergabe
Betriebsplanung

Schematic line layout

In images of lines: schematic presentation.

Systemskizze einer Strecke

Schematic track layout

In images of stations and junctions: schematic presentation.

Systemskizze einer Betriebsstelle

Secondary railway

In SLS, a term according to the German legal regulation in EBO. It activates warnings concerning line speed, gradient, or distance distant/main signal, when values fall below or exceed limits.

Nebenbahn

Sectional route release

A route release where only a part of a train route is released, e.g. after leaving the main track.

Teilfahrstraßenauflösung

Section signal

British signaling terminology: In the absolute block signaling technique, the first signal on the running line (begin of absolute block section).

Signal, an dem der Streckenblock beginnt (britische Absolutblock-Technologie)

Self-propelling train

Any passenger trains in fixed or pre-defined formation. Collective term for multiple unit (set) and power car set

Triebkopf- bzw. -wagenzug

Serial route node

A part of a route node which can be used by one train only at a time, used in capacity analysis (one-channel service system).

Teilfahrstraßenknoten

Service channel

In queuing theory, a part of infrastructure which is occupied exclusively by one customer. (source [1])

Bedienungskanal

Service process

In queuing theory, a (stochastic) process modeling the behavior of customers in service channel. (source [1])

Bedienungsvorgang

Service rate

Reciprocal of the mean service time, measured in customers per unit time. (source [1])

Bedienungsrate

Service route

The file of stations/junctions used by a train during its running movement. In SLS additionally: The used tracks in the stations including stops, if any.

Laufweg

    Regular ...

The service route which is used in preference in the scheduling process and the operation process.

Standard...

Service system

In queuing theory, a certain infrastructure where customers request a service. (source [1])

Bedienungssystem

    One channel ...

Service system where customers may be served only one after the other (e.g. single track line, serial route node).

Einstelliges ...

    Multiple channel ...

Service system where several customers may be served parallel (e.g. a set of station tracks, route node).

Mehrstelliges ...

Service time

The time a customer occupies a certain part of the infrastructure for service. In railway operations research the service times are often represented by the minimum headway times or the junction margins.(source [1])

Bedienungszeit

Shunting movement

A movement for making up trains, moving vehicles from one track to another, or similar purpose. (source [1]) It partly runs under the control of shunting signals, partly on sight.

Rangierfahrt

Shunting signal

A line side signal that authorizes a shunting movement. (source [1])

Rangiersignal

Side-boarding platform

Platform with a track only on one side.

Außenbahnsteig

Signal berth

The track section on the approach to a signal. (source [1])

Annäherungsstrecke

Sighting distance

A certain distance for the driver to view continuously the clear aspect at the signal that gives the approach indication to the signal at the entrance of the block section.

Sichtstrecke

Sighting time

A certain time for the driver to view the clear aspect at the signal that gives the approach indication to the signal at the entrance of the block section. It is the running time that corresponds to the sighting distance.

Sichtzeit

Simulation model

A mathematical representation of a system that can be used to mimic the processes of the system under varying circumstances. Usually, a simulation model is operated subject to perturbations.(source [1])

Simulationsmodell

    Asynchronous ...

A simulation model, where possible processes are investigated in advance and stored (e.g. a set of different closed time steps for each train). On demand, a suitable process (a process that does not cause conflicts) is used in the simulation procedure one by the other. Model used in SLS.

Asynchrones ...

    Synchronous ...

A simulation model, where all processes are considered parallel. Depending on occurring conflicts, the processes are modified.

Synchrones ...

Single schedule simulation

See > schedule simulation

Simulation eines Fahrplanes

Single sided platform

See > side-boarding platform

Außenbahnsteig

Single slip (switch)

A track layout that combines a crossing with two pairs of points to provide slip connections at one side of the crossing. It offers six possible train routes.

Einfache Kreuzungsweiche

Single-track section

A line section with one track only. In SLS, this may be located between two double track section or between two termini whereas the intermediate terminals may be equipped with two and more tracks.

Eingleisiger Abschnitt

Special margin

A recovery margin which is arranged at a special point of the line, e.g. at the entrance of a station.

Sonderzuschlag

Specified projection

See > projection

Spezifizierte Hochrechnung

Speed bundling

A scheduling principle where trains run at harmonized speeds in order to make best use of the railway line capacity. (source [1])

Bündeln

Stability

The ability of a system or component to compensate for delays and return to the desired state. (source [1])

Stabilität

Stage of operation process

See > operating stages

Betriebsstufe Betriebsdurchführung (Betriebsablauf)

Stage of scheduling process

See > operating stages

Betriebsstufe Fahrplanerstellung (Trassenvergabe, Betriebsplanung)

Starter (starting) signal

British signaling terminology: In the absolute block signaling technique, a signal at the end of a station track with the aspects "stop" and "clear"/"clear with limited speed until leaving the point's area".
In SLS: > exit  signal

Ausfahrsignal

Station

1) A collective term for terminal, yard, depot, and halt.
Remark: Definition differs, in some sources defined like > terminal.
2) A place designated in the timetable by name.
3) A place with a platform stop for passenger trains.

Betriebsstelle (ohne Abzweigung)

Station signal

In SLS: Collective term for entry (entrance) signal, exit signal, intermediate signal and signals before junctions.

Bahnhofs-/Deckungssignal

    CBS

... with computer based interlocking

KS-...

    RBS

... with relay interlocking

Relais-...

Straight-ahead-line

In a junction: The line (of more importance) from which the branch line (of less importance)  is diverging.

Hauptgleis/-strecke (in einer Abzweigung)

Superior

See > high-ranked

Hochrangig

Switch points

A pair of movable rails to guide a train from one track to another.

Weichenzungen

Target coasting speed

See > coasting speed

Ausrollgeschwindikeit am Ende des Ausrollbereiches

Terminal

A location where stopping, ending, beginning, overtaking, crossing, or direction reversal of trains is possible. It has one point at minimum.

Bahnhof

Theoretical capacity

See > capacity of infrastructure

Theoretische Leistungsfähigkeit

Through main track

See > main track

Durchgehendes Hauptgleis

Time measuring point

In SLS: Points at the line, fixed by the user at any location, to calculate the running time.

Fahrzeitmesspunkt

Time series method

An algorithm in the analytic method to calculate the number train sequences schedule-independently. The number of train sequences is calculated on the base of the hourly number of trains (daily time series) represented by the pattern train. The results are added up for the investigation period. In the advanced time series method, the transition from one hour to the next hour is especially considered.

Ganglinienverfahren

Tolerance stackup

See > regular tolerance stackup

Regelzuschlag

(Traction unit) class

A locomotive, power car, or multiple unit set with a unified design. Standardly, there is a class number (or name) and a series number. For some classes, there are sub-classes (in SLS: variants).

(Triebfahrzeug-)Baureihe

Traction unit resistance

The resistances caused by air and wheels of locomotives, power cars, or multiple units.

Laufwiderstand eines Triebfahrzeugs

Traffic controller

A person in charge of dispatching, i.e. changing train speeds, orders, and routes. Controllers can be further organized into a hierarchy, taking care for instance of network and local issues. (source [1])

Betriebslenker (Zentrale)
Fahrdienstleiter (Bahnhof)

Traffic diagram

A time-distance diagram that contains the train paths of all trains that run on the line. (source [1])

Bildfahrplan

Trailing point

The point or the turnout, where two lines (main line and branch line) are merged to one line in direction of train running.

Einfädelungsweiche

Train category

A special classification in SLS to

HST

high-speed passenger train

PT

other long distance passenger train

LPT

local passenger train

S

commuter train

oPT

other passenger train

ECS

empty coaching stock train

FT-h

high-ranked (superior) long distance freight train

FT-l

other mixed long distance freight train

BT

block train

LFT

local freight train

oFT

other freight train

LE

light engine

int.

internal running

SM

shunting movement

Two other train types may be defined by the user.

Zugart

Train class

A special classification of Deutsche Bahn in SLS to

PT

long distance passenger train

LPT

local passenger train

oPT

other passenger train

S

commuter train

FT

high ranked long distance freight train

LFT

local freight train

oFT

other freight train

LE

light engine

Zugklasse

Train control area

The area where a train control system (e.g. ETCS, LZB) is active.

Zugbeeinflussungsbereich

Train kind

SLS knows two train kinds: individual train and pattern train.

Zugtyp

Train on demand

A train which is scheduled, but which is operated only if transport demand is existing.

Bedarfszug

Train path

That part of the capacity of the railway infrastructure which is necessary to schedule or to run a train with a requested speed profile and a given level of service. (source [1])

Zugtrasse

Train path deviation

The difference between the scheduled train path and the train path in daily operation process.

Abweichung von der Zugtrasse

Train route

A locked route for the safe passage of a train through an interlocking.

Zugfahrstraße
Zugfahrweg

    Regular ...

The train route which is used in preference in the scheduling process and the daily operation process.

Standard-...

Train sequence

The file of trains as scheduled (stage of scheduling process) or as operated (stage of operation process). The time interval between a train sequence is governed by signals (block signals in a block signalling system).

Zugfolge

Train sequence section

See > block section

Zugfolgeabschnitt

Train type

A classification for customers like intercity, fast train, semi-fast train, etc.

Zuggattung

Transport time

1) The total of all the running and dwell times in a train's end to end journey (train related). (source [1])
2) The total hours during which the service is operated (passenger related). (source [1])

1) Transportzeit
2) Verkehrszeit

Travel time

The sum of all the time taken by a passenger from origin to final destination of a trip, including access. (source [1])

Reisezeit

Undisturbed train operation

A train can go from one planned stop to the next planned stop according to the timetable. It will not encounter any restrictive signal aspects due to conflicts with other trains. See also > disturbed train operation. (source [1])

Unbehinderte Zugfahrt

Unequally-ranked

In a train sequence: The two trains have different priorities.

Ungleichrangig

Un-impeded train operation
Un-impeded train running

See > undisturbed train operation

Unbehinderte Zugfahrt

Utilization ratio

The ratio between charge of a network part and the capacity of that network part.

Nutzungsgrad

Vehicle dynamics data

All data that are essential for the running movement of single engines, trains, power cars, and multiple units.

Fahrdynamische Daten

Vehicle resistance

The resistances caused by air and wheel of coaches and wagons.

Laufwiderstand eines Wagenzuges

Waiting-loss system

In queueing theory, a service system where customers have either to wait in a waiting space or leave the system if all service channels are busy.(source [1])

Warte-Verlust-System

Waiting system

In queueing theory, a service system where customers have to wait in a waiting space if all service channels are busy. (source [1])

Wartesystem

Waiting time

The time period between the requested time and the realized time.

Wartezeit

Filtering-in

The waiting time which occurs when trains filter in, either at the border of the investigation area or when a train begins within the investigation area. The waiting happens outside of the system.

... beim Einfädeln

Scheduled ...

In the scheduling process, the requested time is the optimal time according to customer's requests, the realized time is the scheduled time after conflict resolution.

Planmäßige ...

    Unscheduled ...

In the operation process, the requested time is the scheduled time, the realized time is the time, when the train is operated after dispatching (resolution of conflicts caused by delays). Synonym for knock-on delays.

Außerplanmäßige ...

    ... within the system

The difference between the transport time on the base of regular running time and shortest dwell times and the realized running and dwell times. The waiting happens within the system.

... unterwegs

[1] Hansen, Ingo Arne; Pachl, Jörn: Railway Timetabling & Operations, DVV Media Group GmbH, Hamburg, 2014

 

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